Clínica Fertia

Immunological study of the endometrium

What is the Immunological study of the endometrium?

Immune cells present at the endometrial level play a crucial role for successful implantation and in achieving pregnancy. At the endometrial level, an appropriate balance must be developed that allows the genetically different embryo from the mother, not to be rejected and to implant.

The precise mechanisms that allow this immunological tolerance are very complex and still remain under study today. A number of immune cells have been identified including: uterine Natural Killer (uNK) cells, macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells, and B cells, present at the maternal-fetal interface with varying functions and concentrations throughout the various stages of gestation


Using flow cytometry techniques, it is possible to quantify them and thus assess the immune balance, in addition to establishing recommendations in cases where it is altered.

On the other hand, uNK cells are mainly involved in maternal-fetal tolerance. They present in their membrane some receptors called KIR that bind to HLA-C molecules (responsible for the recognition between self and foreign) present on the surface of the embryo. Both the KIR receptors and the HLA-C molecules are polymorphic and it may happen that certain combinations are inappropriate, so in some cases their study may be necessary.

Frequently asked questions about reproduction treatments

If you would like more information about our treatments, we are always available to help and answer any of your questions.

How long do I have to wait to start treatment?
If the evaluation is successful, treatment can be started immediately.
Treatment can be scheduled for the month that best suits the couple. In the case of egg recipients, the waiting time is usually one or two months.
How many attempts can I make?

In the case of artificial insemination, here at the clinic we recommend a maximum of four attempts, since 90% of pregnancies occur in the first four cycles.
Regarding In-vitro fertilisation or microinjection, our clinic never makes more than four attempts using these techniques.
In the case of egg donation, it is more difficult to establish a limit, this will normally be determined by psychological and also economic factors.

Can you use these techniques when you have already entered menopause?
Yes. Nowadays, it is possible to become a mother after entering menopause, either physiological due to ovarian failure, or after treatment of neoplastic diseases.
In these cases, the reception of eggs from a donor must be used.
What are the biggest concerns of egg or sperm recipient couples?
Anonymity is what worries most couples and, at Clínica Fertia, this is absolutely always guaranteed. Although a patient accepts to undergo the treatment, they do want the upmost discretion.
Another factor that concerns a couple is the health of the donors and the physical resemblance to them.
In our centre, both in the case of sperm donors and egg donors, our goal is to seek that the physical resemblance is as similar as possible to the parents.
Are these treatments expensive?
For a couple with fertility problems to achieve a pregnancy it can cost between 800 and 6,000 euros, if an assisted reproduction technique is used. Although the price not only depends on the technique used, but also on the frequency of its application.
Clínica Fertia is a pioneer in maintaining an honest and transparent policy. Since 2002 we have published the information of the cost of our treatments on our website.

Check out our prices list